Apologies for posting so sparsely lately. Between covering the end of the Supreme Court term for Above the Law (see posts here or here if you’d like) and this day job as a lawyer, I’ve been remiss in keeping you up to date on what’s what in the circuits.
Today, please find the Short Wins for the last two weeks. My personal favorite is United States v. Huizar-Velazquez because there simply isn’t enough law on criminal importation of wire hangars.
To the victories!
1. In re Sealed Case, D.C. Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to possession with intent to distribute crack cocaine. At the time, he was subject to a 20-year mandatory minimum sentence. He provided substantial assistance to law enforcement, and the government asked the court to sentence appellant below the mandatory minimum. The court did so. Notwithstanding the fact that appellant was sentenced below the mandatory minimum, he was eligible for a sentence reduction under the recent amendments to the Sentencing Guidelines. Therefore, the case was remanded for the district court to consider whether a sentence reduction is warranted.
2. United States v. Cotton, Fifth Circuit: Drugs were seized during a search of appellant’s car during a traffic stop. Because appellant limited his consent to a search of his luggage only – where the drugs were not located – the officer’s prolonged and more extensive search of the entire car violated appellant’s Fourth Amendment right. The drugs should have been suppressed as fruits of the unlawful search. Appellant’s conviction was vacated and the case remanded.
3. United States v. Huizar-Velazquez, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to importing wire hangers without paying the proper duties. At sentencing, the court applied the wrong sentencing guideline – it should have applied the guideline addressing evasion of import duties by smugglers trying to fool, rather than corrupt, government officials. Similarly, the court calculated the loss amount under the wrong guideline. For these reasons, appellant’s sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.
4. United States v. White Eagle, Ninth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of the following offenses, among others: conspiracy to convert tribal credit program proceeds (count I); theft and conversion from an Indian Tribal Organization (count II); concealment of public corruption (count IV); and public acts affecting a personal financial interest (count V). Counts I and II were reversed because the alleged object of the conspiracy – modifying a loan – was not criminal. Therefore, there was no conspiracy. Count IV was reversed because the government did not show that appellant violated a specific duty to report credit program fraud. Count V was reversed because the connection between appellant’s alleged financial interest and a Bureau of Indian Affairs administrative officer’s fraudulent loans was remote and speculative. Further, the court erred at sentencing in calculating the loss amount, requiring remand.
5. Gonzalez v. United States, Second Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to narcotics and bribery crimes and was sentenced to 210 months in prison. The district court denied appellant’s 28 U.S.C. § 2255 motion to vacate his conviction and sentence. In the motion, appellant argued that his attorney provided ineffective assistance in connection with the guilty plea and sentencing. Because appellant demonstrated that the attorney’s ineffective assistance was prejudicial, the district court’s order dismissing appellant’s motion was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing with the assistance of competent counsel.
6. United States v. Nicholson, Tenth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to three drug and weapons-related charges after the district court denied his motion to suppress evidence found in his car after a traffic stop. Because the officer pulled appellant over for making a turn that was not illegal, the officer violated the Fourth Amendment. No other legal basis existed for stopping appellant and the good faith exception did not apply. For these reasons, the denial of appellant’s motion to suppress was reversed and the case remanded with directions to vacate his convictions.
7. United States v. Thompson, D.C. Circuit: Appellant was found guilty of drug charges. Because the record was insufficient to resolve appellant’s claim that his attorney was ineffective in failing to inform him of plea offers from the prosecution before the offers expired, the case was remanded to the district court for whatever proceedings are necessary to determine whether appellant was denied his right to effective assistance of counsel.