Today’s short wins are dominated by federal sex offenses and fraud. It must be something in the water.
As the last few have been, this post contains a number of cases that were decided over the end of the summer.
Very soon — perhaps even next week — the Short Wins will start to become a recap of all the published federal criminal defense wins from each of the circuits on a weekly basis. So, if you’re an criminal appellate practitioner (on the defense side), our hope is that this will soon be one stop shopping for 28(j) letters.
One other note – I had a preview of sorts for the upcoming Supreme Court term at Above the Law called Kaiser’s Guide To Bluffing Your Way Through Knowledge About The Supreme Court’s New Term to Non-Lawyers. It’s not long on criminal defense stuff, but I do make fun of lawyers.
To (the) victories:
1. United States v. Marston, First Circuit: In bankruptcy fraud case, appellant appealed her conviction for knowingly and fraudulently failing to disclose certain debts to creditors on her bankruptcy petition that were incurred under appellant’s friend’s name, which appellant used without her friend’s permission. Because the government failed to prove that, at the time appellant filed the petition, there were still outstanding claims by these creditors, her conviction was improper, warranting reversal.
2. United States v. Cunningham, Third Circuit: In child pornography case, the district court abused its discretion by failing to review child pornography video clips found on appellant’s computer before admitting them into evidence and by allowing the videos to be shown to the jury. Because the highly inflammatory nature of the videos clearly and substantially outweighed their probative value, and because these errors were not harmless, appellant’s conviction was vacated and the case remanded for a new trial.
3. United States v. Leal-Del Carmen, Ninth Circuit: On appeal of appellant’s conviction for bringing in illegal aliens, appellant was denied his Sixth Amendment right to a meaningful opportunity to present a complete defense when the government deported an illegal alien who would have provided exculpatory evidence for appellant before counsel for appellant was even appointed. This prevented the jury from hearing anything at all about the testimony of appellant’s sole favorable witness. Reversed and remanded.
4. United States v. Robers, Seventh Circuit: In conspiracy to commit wire fraud case, district court erred in including attorneys’ fees for collecting a debt and unspecified fees in its restitution order because these fees are not recoverable under the Mandatory Victims Restitution Act of 1996. Vacated improper aspects of restitution award and remanded for entry of new restitution order.
5. United States v. Butler, Tenth Circuit: Brothers James and Marlin Butler, who sold guided deer hunts, pled guilty to conspiring to sell and transport poached deer. In sentencing the brothers, the district court erred in conflating the value of the deer with the full price of a guided hunt. The court also improperly imposed James’ special conditions of supervision without considering whether the conditions would interfere with his lawful employment. Vacated appellants’ sentences and remanded for resentencing.
6. United States v. Nielsen, Ninth Circuit: In sentencing appellant pursuant to his guilty plea to coercion and enticement of a minor, the district court erred in applying the “repeat and dangerous sex offender” enhancement under U.S.S.G. § 4B1.5(a) based on appellant’s adjudication as a delinquent youth. Because the delinquency adjudication did not constitute a “sex offense conviction,” the Ninth Circuit vacated the sentence and remanded for resentencing.
7. United States v. Navedo, Third Circuit: In illegal weapons possession case, the district court erred in denying appellant’s motion to suppress weapons that police discovered in appellant’s home after his warrantless arrest because appellant was detained without reasonable suspicion or probable cause to arrest. Remanded with instructions to vacate the order denying appellant’s motion to suppress.
8. United States v. Johnson, Eleventh Circuit: In sentencing appellant after his guilty plea to interfering with commerce by threats or violence, brandishing a firearm during a crime of violence, and being a felon in possession of a firearm, the district court erred in applying a two-level sentencing enhancement under U.S.S.G. § 3C1.2 for reckless endangerment during flight. The court’s reliance on three pieces of evidence to support the enhancement was misguided: the first two evidentiary showings were insufficient to prove that appellant actively encouraged or brought about the dangerous conduct, and the court did not make the requisite finding for enhancement for the third. Vacated and remanded for resentencing.
9. United States v. Williams, Ninth Circuit: The district court erred in grouping together appellant’s convictions for wire fraud, extortion, and destruction of a letter box for purposes of sentencing under U.S.S.G. § 3D1.2 because the victims of appellant’s mailbox-related offenses and his wire fraud and extortion offenses were distinct. The court further erred in applying three sentencing enhancements: (1) a five-level sentencing enhancement under U.S.S.G. § 2B3.2(b)(3)(iii) for brandishing a firearm; (2) a leadership enhancement under U.S.S.G. § 3B1.1(c); and (3) a two-point adjustment under U.S.S.G. § 3C1.1 for obstructing justice. Vacated appellant’s sentence and remanded for resentencing.
10. United States v. Alvarado, Fifth Circuit: In child pornography case, the district court erred in automatically imposing a lifetime sentence of supervised release without engaging in any analysis of the circumstances surrounding appellant’s crime. Vacated court’s order regarding lifetime supervision and remanded for further proceedings.
11. United States v. Murray, Third Circuit: After his release from incarceration on his convictions for traveling interstate to engage in illicit sexual conduct with a minor and possession of child pornography in the District of New Jersey, appellant moved to the Western District of Pennsylvania. When the Pennsylvania probation office sought to modify appellant’s supervised release conditions to include new, more restrictive conditions, the district court erred in granting the request without articulating a viable basis for those new conditions. Vacated order; remanded for the district court to more clearly explain why the conditions are no greater than necessary to satisfy the 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a) sentencing factors.