It’s generally a slow time of year between Christmas and New Year’s, but the federal circuits have been busy. But who wouldn’t want to start the year with a remand in a criminal case (other than the government)?
Since we were off last week, here are the wins from the last two weeks in the federal circuits.
Happy New Year!
To the victories:
1. U.S. v. Duron-Caldera, Fifth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of illegal reentry. The conviction was vacated and the case remanded because the government should not have been allowed to admit an affidavit by the appellant’s grandmother. The use of the affidavit violated the Confrontation Clause.
2. U.S. v. Doss, Seventh Circuit: Appellant was convicted and sentenced for a variety of identity fraud and identity theft charges. Finding that a sentencing enhancement was improperly applied, the Seventh Circuit vacated the sentence.
3. U.S. v. DeJarnette, Ninth Circuit: DeJarnette appealed his conviction for failure to register as a sex offender. The Ninth Circuit reversed the conviction because the Attorney General has not validly specified if the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) applied to those already under sex offender restrictions when SORNA was enacted.
Defense Attorney: Mark D. Eibert
4. U.S. v. Timmann, Eleventh Circuit: Appellant was convicted of possession of a firearm by a convicted felon. On appeal, the Eleventh Circuit vacated the convictions because the trial court improperly denied the Appellant’s motion to suppress evidence collected from a warrantless search. Because there was no urgent, ongoing emergency, the emergency aid exception to the warrant requirement should not have applied, and therefore the evidence collected should have been suppressed.
5. U.S. v. Pole, D.C. Circuit: Appellant was convicted of five counts of wire fraud and one count of theft. Because Appellant’s claim for ineffective assistance of counsel was colorable, they were remanded. Further, because the trial court did not make the proper factual findings regarding restitution, the restitution order was vacated and remanded.
Defense Attorneys: Beverly G. Dyer, A.J. Kramer, and Tony Axam, Jr.
6. U.S. v. Rushton, Seventh Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to one count of mail fraud and one count of money laundering and received a 4-level enhancement at sentencing for commodity pool operator fraud as well as a 2-level enhancement for abuse of a position of trust. The Seventh Circuit reversed and remanded because the abuse of trust enhancement is barred if the enhancement for being a commodity pool operator applies; therefore, Appellant’s sentence was not calculated correctly.
7. U.S. v. Caceres-Olla, Ninth Circuit: After pleading guilty to unlawful reentry into the United States, Appellant was sentenced to 46 months in prison. The court applied a sentencing enhancement based on a prior crime. However, the Ninth Circuit held that a prior felony conviction under Florida Statute §800.04(4)(a) does not qualify as a crime of violence and therefore vacated and remanded for resentencing.
8. U.S. v. Lin, Ninth Circuit: Appellant was convicted under 18 U.S.C. §1546(a) for fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other documents. The panel from the Ninth Circuit remanded because §1546 does not prohibit the mere possession of an unlawfully obtained driver’s license issued by the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Instead, §1546 targets different documents, but the government did not prove that Appellant possessed any such document.
Defense Attorney: Mark B. Hanson
9. U.S. v. Eiland, D.C. Circuit: Eiland and Miller were convicted of various narcotics-related offenses. On appeal, the D.C. Circuit vacated Miller’s conviction for participation in a continuing criminal enterprise because the government failed to produce sufficient evidence that Miller acted as an organizer, supervisor, or manager to five or more individuals. Thus, the government did not establish all elements of the crime. The Court also vacated the fine imposed on Eiland and remand for reconsideration of that portion of the sentence because the district court vacated the conviction for which the fine was imposed.
Defense Attorneys: Eric H. Kirchman, Kenneth M. Robinson, Dennis M. Hart, and Frederick Miller
10. U.S. v. Miller, D.C. Circuit: This case is related to the above case, U.S. v. Eiland. In this related opinion, the D.C. Circuit vacates a number of convictions because the district court’s responses to jury notes impermissibly interfered with the jury’s independent role as fact-finder. The trial court abused its discretion by directing the jury to evidence previously unidentified by the jury as supporting a charge in the indictment. The Court also vacated Thomas’ life sentences for narcotics conspiracy and RICO conspiracy and remanded for resentencing because those sentences violated Apprendi.
Defense Attorneys: Dennis M. Hart and David B. Smith