November 11, 2013

Short Wins - Three Wins

Happy Monday!

We have three short but good cases from the circuits from last week. I think my favorite is U.S. v. Glover, a nice suppression case. Congrats to Adam Kurland for the win.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. Huff v. U.S., Sixth Circuit: Appellant entered a plea agreement, pleading guilty to various fraud and identity theft charges. The parties also agreed to use the November 1, 2002 Sentencing Guideline Manual but the court used a later version, resulting in a higher sentencing range. When Appellant first appealed, his attorney talked him into dismissing and the district court rejected Appellant's ineffective assistance of counsel claim without an evidentiary hearing. The Sixth Circuit reverses and remands because a hearing was necessary to properly evaluate the ineffective assistance of counsel claim.

Defense Attorney: Michael M. Losavio

2. U.S. v. Bruguier, Eighth Circuit: After a jury trial, Appellant was convicted of sexual abuse, burglary, aggravated sexual abuse, and sexual abuse of a minor and sentenced to 360 months imprisonment. Appellant argued that the jury instructions for sexual abuse omitted a mens rea element. Agreeing with Appellant, the Eighth Circuit remanded for a new trial on the sexual abuse count and vacated Appellant's sentence.

3. U.S. v. Glover, DC Circuit: Glover was convicted of conspiring to possess and distribute cocaine. A warrant was issued in D.C. but allowed the police to place an electronic bug on Glover's truck which was parked in Maryland. The D.C. Circuit found that this warrant was facially insufficient and the evidence obtained pursuant to it should have been suppressed. Because the district court did not suppress the evidence, the conviction is reversed.

Defense Attorneys: Adam H. Kurland and Robert S. Becker

November 6, 2013

Short Wins - Overcriminalization and Prison Costs Head to Congress

Congress these days seems to have noticed that we have too many federal criminal laws - which is a good thing (the Congressional notice, less the excessive criminal laws).

Last week, the House Judiciary Committee heard testimony on overcriminalization of regulatory crimes. The Hill has a nice write-up in "Regulation horror stories for Halloween."

Here's the intro:

Joyce Kinder was fined $5,000 and sentenced to three years probation for unknowingly catching protected paddlefish in the Ohio River.

Lawrence Lewis was arrested for violating the Clean Water Act after he disposed of sewage from a Washington, D.C., retirement home. He thought it would drain to a water treatment plant, but it instead went into Rock Creek.

Lewis and Kinder are both victims of overenforcement of regulations, according to lawmakers from both parties who say agencies should not threaten to jail people for violating regulations they don't even know exist.

Next week, the Senate is having a meeting on "Oversight of the Bureau of Prisons and Cost-Effective Strategies for Reducing Recidivism." It seems that folks have noticed that the Fair Sentencing Act and Holder's recent announcement about charging policies aren't actually going to help the folks who are already in prison get out sooner.

Here's hoping something comes out of these.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. United States v. Bethea, Second Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to one count of cocaine distribution in 2010 and was sentenced to 80 months' imprisonment. Although this sentence was outside of the 60-71-month guidelines range and new guidelines would require only a 60-month sentence, Bethea's motion for sentencing modification was denied. Bethea's sentence was vacated and the case remanded to the district court to determine the impact of the new guidelines on his sentence.

2. United States v. Hemingway, Fourth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to being a felon in possession of a firearm and ammunition and was sentenced to 15 years based on a mandatory minimum statute. The judgment was vacated and the case was remanded for sentencing because the mandatory minimum statute is only controlling when certain prior crimes were committed and Hemingway's prior crimes did not fall within that statute.

3. United States v. McManus, Fourth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to one count of possession of child pornography and was sentenced to 72 months' imprisonment. Finding that the district court improperly interpreted statutory language and therefore applied the wrong sentencing enhancement, and that this error was not harmless, McManus' sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

4. United States v. Hashime, Fourth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of multiple counts related to child pornography. His conviction and sentence were reversed because Hashime was in custody, the agents did not read Hashime his Miranda rights, and the statements made by Hashime during that interrogation were not properly suppressed at trial. The case was remanded for further proceedings so the court did not address whether mandatory minimums were appropriate in this case.

5. United States v. Miller, Sixth Circuit: A jury found Appellant guilty of two counts of making false statements to a bank and two counts of aggravated identity theft. The court reversed both aggravated identity theft convictions because Miller did not "use" the identities as required by statute. The court also reversed one of the false statements convictions because the document did not contain false statements as the term is statutorily defined.

6. United States v. Lyons, Seventh Circuit: Lyons appealed his conviction of possession of a firearm as a felon and the imposed 210 month sentence. Although the conviction was affirmed, the case was remanded for resentencing because the district court committed two procedural errors. First, it failed to state the reasons supporting the sentence and, second, the court incorrectly believed it was required to impose a five-year period of supervised release.

7. United States v. Kyle, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to aggravated sexual abuse of a child and was sentenced to 450 months' imprisonment. The guilty plea and sentence were vacated because the district court participated in plea negotiations by prematurely committing itself to a sentence of a specific severity. Because this prejudiced Kyle, the case was remanded with instructions for reassignment to a different judge.

October 31, 2013

Short Wins - the "I'm not dead edition"

Gentle readers,

I have been remiss in my postings of late. Apologies. Here is, in one place, a mass of cases from the last few weeks.

Enjoy.

To the Victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. United States v. Dominic Pelligrino, Second Circuit.pdf
Appellant Pellegrino was charged with having violated New York's narcotics laws and pleaded guilty in state court. Although the circuit court found his arguments on appeal without merit, they act nostra sponte to hold that it was an error not to apply the civil forfeiture standards established by the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act of 2000. This led to the district courts verdict being vacated and remanded.

2. United States v. Arqueta-Ramos, Ninth Circuit.pdf
The case of Delicia Arqueta-Ramos illegally entering the United States was vacated and remanded on the grounds that she took a plea en masse. The circuit court held that district court did not err by advising the defendants of their rights en masse, however it did err but not questioning the defendant individually to ensure she understood her rights.

3. United States v. Haggerty, Tenth Circuit.pdf
After pleading guilty to one count of possession with intent to distribute and one count of possession of a firearm by a previously convicted felon, Haggerty appealed his seventy-two-month sentence. His case was reversed and remanded due to the district court's failure to consider United States Sentencing Guidelines for a one-level reduction for acceptance of responsibility.

4. United States v. Royal, Fourth Circuit.pdf
Royal was convicted by a jury of unlawfully possessing ammunition was sentenced the 188 months imprisonment after it was determined that he is an armed career criminal under the ACCA. Upon his appeal his sentence was affirmed in part, vacated in part, and remanded for resentencing due to the Supreme Court's recent holding in Descamps v. United States regarding imposition of the ACCA sentencing enhancement.

5. United States v. Liu, Ninth Circuit.pdf
Liu's convictions and sentencing for criminal copyright infringement and trafficking in counterfeit labels were vacated and remanded for two reasons: (1) the jury was improperly instructed to the criminal statutes of acting "willfully" and "knowingly" at the time of the offense; (2) Liu's counsel was ineffective by failing to raise an obvious statute-of-limitation defense.

6. United States v. Lang, Eleventh Circuit.pdf
After being charged with 70 counts of Lang's case was vacated and remanded with directions to dismiss the indictment on the grounds that the indictment was "so defective that it does not, by any reasonable construction, charge an offense for which the defendant is convicted."

7. United States v. Chandler, Fifth Circuit.pdf
The 420 month sentence Chandler received for engaging in a child exploitation enterprise was vacated and remanded for re-sentencing because 127 months of sentencing imposed on Chandler was partially based on the fact that he was a police officer at the time of the offense. After reviewing the case, the fifth circuit court determined that his status of police officer did not justify the increased sentence.

8. United States v. Gomez, Ninth Circuit.pdf
Appellant Gomez's case was affirmed in part and vacated in part, and remanded. The court affirmed his indictment charging him with illegal reentry. His sentence for sexual conduct with a minor was vacated and remanded due to the court's incorrect imposition of a sixteen-level sentencing enhancement by the district court.

9. United States v. Nelson, Fifth Circuit.pdf
Nelson's conviction for soliciting and receiving bribes as a government official was affirmed, but his sentence was vacated and remanded. This occurred because the district court failed to provide enough evidence to support their decision to apply the Sentencing Guideline that permits the court to increase the offense level corresponding to the bribery amount. The district court valued the bribery amount to be $6,382,000 but only had sufficient evidence to support a claim of $250,000.

10. United States v. Rufai, Tenth Circuit.pdf
All of Mr. Rufai's convictions of aiding and abetting health care fraud charge were reversed due to the absence of sufficient evidence. The district court failed to provide sufficient evidence that demonstrates that Mr. Rufai knowingly and willfully participated in fraud.

11. United States v. Rodriguez, Eleventh Circuit.pdf
Rodriquez's conviction was affirmed, but his sentence was reversed and remanded. The circuit court ruled that the district court had enough evidence to support that Mr. Rodriguez had committed wire, however they did not have enough evidence to support the claim that there were more than 50 victims. This led the circuit court to remand the conviction to the district court for resentencing with a 2-level enhancement rather than a 4-level enhancement.

12. United States v. Moore, Fifth Circuit.pdf
Defendant Moore pleaded guilty to one count for her role in a conspiracy to steal mail from six collection boxes. She appeals her sentence on the grounds that her recommended enhancement was miscalculated. The court ruled that Moore was correct and that she should have only received a 4-level enhancement not the 6-level enhancement she was given. Her sentence was vacated and remanded for resentencing.

13. United States v. Smith, Tenth Circuit.pdf
After pleading guilty to two counts of wire fraud, Mr. Smith was assigned a total offense level of 16, a criminal history category of VI, and sentenced to a term of 180 months' imprisonment on each count of wire fraud. The court ordered these sentences run concurrently and consecutively to a Kansas state sentence Mr. Smith is serving for burglaries and thefts underlying the fraud offenses. This sentence was reversed and remanded on the grounds of a sentencing disparity argument the court found to be a reversible error.

14. United States v. North, Fifth Circuit.pdf
North appeals the district court's denial of his motion to suppress evidence from interception of his cellular phone. The court reversed the denial of his motion on the grounds that the FBI agents recording his call failed to perform minimization efforts and remanded the case for further proceedings.

September 16, 2013

Short Wins - A Twofer week

Due to my own sloth, we're presenting two weeks of short wins in one post. Here it is!

There are some good cases here, featuring the Armed Career Criminal Act, the Fourth Amendment, and law enforcement agents testifying as experts.

In other news, the Sentencing Commission has put out two "quick fact" sheets. One is on "Theft Property Destruction and Fraud" and the other is on Mandatory Minimum Penalties.pdf. My favorite fun fact - the median loss in federal fraud cases is $95,408.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. United States v. Bonilla-Guizar, Ninth Circuit.pdf: Appellants were convicted of conspiracy to commit hostage taking, hostage taking, and harboring an alien. At sentencing, the court applied two improper enhancements: (1) to Bonilla, the enhancement for a leadership role was improper because the court's findings on this enhancement were ambiguous; (2) for both appellants, the enhancement for use of a firearm was improper, because the evidence was that appellants merely brandished a firearm. For these reasons, appellants' sentences were remanded for a hearing on the leadership role enhancement and to vacate the use of a firearm enhancement.

Attorneys: for Appellants, Francisco Leon and Rosemary Márquez

2. United States v. Lopez-Cruz, Ninth Circuit: Appellant was charged with conspiracy to transport illegal aliens after police answered appellant's cell phone posing as appellant, when appellant had only given police consent to search the phone. The appellate court affirmed the order suppressing evidence obtained from the call because appellant had standing to claim that his Fourth Amendment rights were violated when police answered the call and the consent to search the phone did not extend to answering incoming calls. Further, the district court did not abuse its discretion in denying the government's motion for reconsideration, which raised an exigent circumstances argument for the first time.

Attorney: Devin Burstein for the appellant

3. United States v. Richard North, Fifth Circuit: The district court erred in denying appellant's motion to suppress evidence obtained from the interception of his cellphone, which led to his arrest for possession of cocaine, for three reasons: (1) it lacked jurisdiction to permit interception of cell phone calls from Texas at a listening post in Louisiana under the criminal investigations wiretap statute; (2) the court's non-compliance with the wiretap statute implicates a core concern of the statute; and (3) the government failed to comply with minimization protocols when it monitored one of the phone calls at issue. The denial of the motion to suppress was reversed and the case remanded for further proceedings.

4. United States v. Bahr, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to possessing child pornography and was sentenced to two 240-month concurrent sentences. In a prior period of post-release supervision, appellant made statements that were incorporated into his presentence report for the current case. This violated appellant's Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination and, as a result, his sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

Attorney for Appellant: Thomas J. Hester

5. United States v. Descamps, Ninth Circuit:The Supreme Court reversed the Ninth Circuit's decision in United States v. Descamps, 466 F. App'x 563 (9th Cir. 2012). The Supreme Court held that (1) courts may not apply the modified categorical approach to sentencing under the Armed Career Criminal Act ("ACCA") when the offense of conviction has a single, indivisible set of elements, and (2) appellant's prior burglary conviction under California law was not for a violent felony within the meaning of ACCA. The Ninth Circuit, in turn, reversed its prior decision and remanded the case for further proceedings.

6. United States v. Freeman, Sixth District.pdf Appellant was convicted by a jury of conspiracy to use interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder for hire and was sentenced to life without parole. After bringing an appeal, the court ruled that his conviction be vacated and remanded for a new trial on the grounds that the lay testimony given by an FBI agent did not show any clear expert methodology on the formation of his opinions. In other words, the agent's testimony failed to live up to the requirement of Rule 702 that states "the product of reliable principles and methods...reliably applied... to the facts of the case".

7. United States v. Hockenberry & Gray, Sixth District.pdf One of two Appellants' sentences was in part affirmed and reversed. Appellant Hockenberry's district court sentence was vacated and remanded for sentencing on the grounds of the district court erring on their denial of the appellants' motion to suppress and their classifications as armed career criminals. Appellant Gray's sentence was affirmed.

September 10, 2013

Short Wins - Sleepy Time In The Circuits

It's a sleepy week in the Circuits last week - a resentencing and a restitution remand.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. United States v. Daniels, et al., Fifth Circuit: Appellants were convicted of conspiring to distribute and to possess with intent to distribute five kilograms or more of cocaine. The finding as to drug quantity was vacated because there was insufficient evidence to support it. Appellants' sentences were vacated and the case remanded for resentencing for the court to recalculate appellants' Guidelines range calculations, which were driven by the conspiracy's vacated five kilogram finding.

2. United States v. Edwards, et al., Eleventh Circuit: Appellants were convicted of wire fraud, mail fraud, and money laundering, and ordered to pay over $6 million in restitution. Because the government had no evidence to demonstrate that five of the alleged victims were entitled to restitution, the court clearly erred in awarding restitution with respect to these victims. The restitution order was vacated and the case remanded for a hearing on whether the five individuals at issue are entitled to restitution.

September 3, 2013

Definitely Not Short Wins

On this, the Monday after Labor Day, I suspect many of us have the feeling that work piles up when you leave the office. And, with last week off from Short Wins, that's definitely what happened here.

Without further ado, to the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. Miller v. United States, Fourth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of possession of a firearm by a convicted felon. For appellant's two prior convictions (upon which the instant offense was based), he was sentenced to 6 to 8 months for each offense. He filed a 28 U.S.C. § 2255 motion to vacate his sentence, arguing that his prior convictions were not qualifying predicate convictions. The court agreed, vacated appellant's conviction, and remanded for the petition to be granted.

Attorney: Ann Loraine Hester for Appellant.

2. United States v. Avila, Tenth Circuit: Appellant was charged with possession with intent to distribute a controlled substance. After his motion to suppress was denied, he entered an unconditional guilty plea to the charge. Because the district court informed appellant that he would retain a right to appeal following the entry of his plea without ensuring he understood that the plea might limit that right, the plea was not knowing and voluntary. Appellant's conviction was vacated and the case remanded with instructions for the court to allow appellant to withdraw his guilty plea.

Attorney: Kari S. Schmidt for Appellant.

3. United States v. Booker, Sixth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of possession of a five-ounce rock of crack cocaine, which he had hidden in his rectum. The police took appellant to an emergency room doctor who, using a procedure appellant did not consent to, removed the rock. The court attributed the doctor's actions to the state for Fourth Amendment purposes. Because the unconsented procedure shocks the conscience and violates due process, the crack rock should have been excluded. Appellant's conviction was reversed.

Attorney: Robert L. Jolley, Jr. for Appellant

4. United States v. Cabrera-Umanzor, Fourth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to unlawful reentry. At sentencing, the court used the "modified categorical approach" to find that appellant's prior state conviction was a "crime of violence," which increased appellant's base offense level by 16. This was error, as the categorical approach should have been used, which would have resulted in a finding that the prior conviction was not a crime of violence. The case was remanded for resentencing.

Attorneys: Joanna Beth Silver, James Wyda for Appellant

5. United States v. Evans, Ninth Circuit: In two cases, appellant was charged with being an alien in the U.S. after deportation and misrepresenting his identity and citizenship to fraudulently obtain social security benefits, food stamps, make a claim of citizenship, and apply for a passport. His primary defense was that he was a citizen. His primary evidence to support the defense was a delayed Idaho state birth certificate. The certificate was excluded before trial because the court ruled it was "substantively fraudulent." This violated appellant's Fifth Amendment due process right to present a defense. The error was not harmless. Appellant's convictions were vacated and the case remanded for new trials.

Attorney: Stephen R. Hormel

6. United States v. Flores, et al., Ninth Circuit: Appellants pled guilty to conspiring to possess an unregistered firearm arising out of their purchase of a grenade launcher and ammunition for the launcher. At sentencing, the court enhanced appellants' sentences 15 levels after finding that the offense involved a missile under Guideline § 2K2.1(b)(3)(A). This was error because the ammunition did not qualify as missiles. The sentences were vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

Attorneys: Richardo M. Gonzalez for Appellant Alfredo Lara; Barbara M. Donovan for Appellant Arturo Lara; Frederick Carroll for Appellant Flores.

7. United States v. John Doe, Sixth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to two counts of distributing over 50 grams of crack cocaine and was sentenced to 130 months after a downward departure was applied. The Fair Sentencing Act was passed four years later, substantially reducing the mandatory minimum and advisory range applicable to appellant's offense. Because appellant's original sentence was based on an advisory range which was subsequently lowered, and because the reduction is consistent with the Sentencing Commission's policy statement in § 1B1.10, he was eligible for a sentence reduction. The sentence was vacated and the case remanded.

Attorney: Melissa M. Salinas

8. United States v. McKye, Tenth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of conspiring to commit money laundering and securities fraud. At trial, the court refused to give an instruction appellant tendered that would have permitted the jury to decide whether the investment notes at issue constituted securities. Instead, the court instructed the jury that the term "security" includes a "note." Because whether a note is a security is a mixed question of law and fact, the court erred in giving that instruction. The government failed to show the error was harmless. Appellant's conviction was reversed.

Attorneys: Howard A. Pincus, Raymond P. Moore, for Appellant

9. United States v. Sedaghaty, Ninth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of conspiring to defraud the United States and filing a false return on behalf of a tax exempt organization. Several errors were made below that, cumulatively prejudiced appellant: the government violated its obligations under Brady v. Maryland by withholding significant impeachment evidence; the court erred in approving an inadequate substitution for classified material in violation of the Classified Information Procedures Act; and the government's search of appellant's hard drives went far beyond the scope of the warrant. The case was remanded for a new trial.

Attorneys: Steven T. Wax, Lawrence Matasar

10. United States v. Swor, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to investment fraud and was ordered to pay restitution under the Mandatory Victims Restitution Act. The court abused its discretion by including in the restitution order losses suffered by victims of an investment scheme that began two months after, and was separate from, the scheme in which appellant was involved. These losses were too attenuated to impose liability on appellant. Appellant's sentence was vacated with regard to the amount of restitution order and remanded to reduce the restitution amount.

11. United States v. Thompson, et al., Ninth Circuit: Appellants were convicted of bank larceny and their sentences were enhanced because they were convicted of using a thermal lance to open the back of an ATM to steal the money inside. Their sentences were enhanced under 18 U.S.C. § 844(h)(1), which imposes a mandatory 10-year consecutive sentence (in addition to the underlying felony) on anyone who "uses fire . . . to commit any felony." Because the enhancement does not apply to the use of a thermal lance, the case was remanded for resentencing.

Attorneys for Appellants: Mark Yanis; Gretchen Fusilier; Sean K. Kennedy; Samuel A. Josephs.

12. United States v. Tragas, Sixth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of offenses arising out of her involvement in an international credit and debit card fraud conspiracy. She was sentenced to 300 months in prison. Because the district court used an incorrect version of the Guidelines when sentencing appellant, appellant's sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

Attorneys: Erik W. Scharf, Wayne R. Atkins

August 26, 2013

Eric Holder Editorial in the Baltimore Sun

Due to various case and vacation related reasons, there will be no short wins today.

But, fear not - if you really want to read stuff written by me about federal criminal law, you can read my editorial in Sunday's Baltimore Sun here about Eric Holder's proposals to reduce the prison population.

Here's the punchline:

No one at the Department of Justice wins an award or gets a promotion for deciding to walk away from a case, or advocating for a lower fair sentence instead of a higher one they can brag about in the office. And Mr. Holder's "reforms" do nothing to change that. If federal prosecutors aren't throwing people in prison from state court, they'll find other people to put in prison.

We either need to drastically reform the culture of law enforcement -- and reward decisions to walk away as much as decisions to go forward -- or we need to drastically reduce the number of people who make a living from other people going to prison.

August 19, 2013

Short Wins - 9th and 11th Circuit edition

There are some great cases from the Ninth and Eleventh Circuits this week - especially United States v. Ermoian on obstruction of justice. Good times.

And, of course, the big news of last week was Eric Holder's recognition that there are a lot of people in federal prison. I'm skeptical that a policy that lets folks with one or two criminal history points avoid a mandatory minimum is going to do much to reduce our prison population, as I told some folks last week, but if the Attorney General is going to pay lip service to an idea, I suppose I'm glad it's an idea that I agree with.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. Spencer v. United States, Eleventh Circuit: Appellant was convicted of distributing crack and sentenced to 151 months based in part on his designation as a career offender. Appellant argued at sentencing and on appeal that one of his predicate felony convictions upon which the career offender status was based no longer qualified as a predicate crime of violence. The court ruled that appellant could use a timely filed motion under 28 U.S.C. § 2255 to pursue that argument when an intervening case from the Supreme Court validated the argument and applies retroactively. Because appellant correctly argued that one of his predicate convictions no longer qualified as a predicate crime of violence, the district court's denial of the § 2255 motion was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

2. United States v. Acosta-Chavez, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty in 2005 to Illinois aggravated criminal sexual abuse and was removed from the country. After he reentered illegally, he was indicated on that basis, pled guilty, and was sentenced to 30 months in prison. His sentence was based in part on the court's designation of the 2005 crime as a "crime of violence." This was error. Because the error was not harmless, the sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

Attorney: David W. Basham, for Appellant.

3. United States v. Edwards, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to being a felon in possession of a firearm and was sentenced to 46 months in prison. At sentencing the district court found that appellant's prior conviction for attempted burglary under Nevada law was a "crime of violence" using the modified categorical approach. In this case, applying that approach was error. Appellant's sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing without the "crime of violence" enhancement.

Attorney: Chad A. Bowers, for Appellant.

4. United States v. Ermoian, et al., Ninth Circuit.pdf: Appellants were convicted of obstructing justice arising out of their alleged conduct during an FBI investigation. Because an FBI investigation is not an "official proceeding" under the federal obstruction of justice statute, the jury instruction identifying it as such was erroneous. The government conceded that, if an FBI investigation wasn't an official proceeding, the obstruction of justice charges could not have been sustained on evidence presented at trial. For these reasons, appellants' convictions were reversed and retrial was barred.

Attorneys: for Mr. Ermoian, John Balazs; for Mr. Johnson, Jerald Brainin.

5. United States v. Madden, Eleventh Circuit: Appellant was indicted for, among other things, knowingly using and carrying a firearm in relation to a crime of violence and knowingly possession a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. At trial, the court's instructions to the jury constructively amended this charge by using different and confusing language. He was convicted on this charge. Because the amendment was plain error, appellant's conviction was reversed and the case remanded.

August 16, 2013

It Doesn't Violate (One) Federal Law To Tip Your State Legislator In Puerto Rico

When you go to a restaurant, you have to pay for the meal - there's a quid pro quo. But you don't have to leave a tip (we're leaving aside situations where you have a large party and they automatically add 18%). A tip you leave because you want to note and appreciate the service you received. Maybe a tip is expected, but a waiter can't sue you for not leaving one.

So too with bribes, gratutities, and law makers. If a member of Congress makes a deal with you where you'll give him $10,000 in exchange for voting for your favorite bill, that's a bribe. But if he votes for your favorite bill and then you send him $10,000 because you're excited about his vote, that's a gratuity.

As the Supreme Court has said,

for bribery there must be a quid pro quo -- a specific intent to give or receive something of value in exchange for an official act. An illegal gratuity, on the other hand, may constitute merely a reward for some future act that the public official will take (and may already have determined to take), or for a past act that he has already taken.

A high-profile case in Puerto Rico highlights the difference - and establishes that, in the First Circuit at least - a gratuity is not a violation of 18 U.S.C. § 666.

Section 666 is the federal statute that prohibits corrupt acts with state and local government actors. It says that any one who is an agent of a state or local government and "corruptly solicits or demands for the benefit of any person, or accepts or agrees to accept, anything of value from any person, intending to be influenced or rewarded in connection with" that person's work as an agent of the government, has violated section 666(a)(1).

Similarly, anyone who "corruptly gives, offers, or agrees to give anything of value to any person, with intent to influence or reward" any one who is an agent of a state or local government violates section 666(a)(2).

The First Circuit held that this language doesn't prohibit mere gratuities.

What Happens In Vegas

Juan Bravo Fernandez - or Mr. Bravo - was the President of Ranger American, a private security firm.

Hector Martinez Maldondad - Mr. Martinez - was a member of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Mr. Martinez was the chair of the Public Safety Committee. In 2005, it was considering some legislation that would have been very favorable to Mr. Fernandez - Senate Projects 410 and 471.

As the First Circuit tells it in United States v. Martinez:

muai-thai-fighting-1-385141-m.jpg

On May 14, 2005, prominent Puerto Rican boxer Felix "Tito" Trinidad was scheduled to fight Ronald Lamont "Winky" Wright at the MGM Grand Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. On March 2, Bravo purchased four tickets to the fight at a cost of $1,000 per ticket. The same day, Martinez submitted Senate Project 410 for consideration by the Puerto Rico Senate. On April 20, Martinez presided over a Public Safety Committee hearing on Senate Project 471 at which Bravo testified. The next day, Bravo booked one room at the Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas. On May 11, Martinez issued a Committee report in support of Senate Project 471.

I suppose it goes without saying that the trips were really nice.

Both men were charged with a number of things - including charges involving the giving or receiving of a bribe in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 666.

The Jury Instructions

Here's part of how the jury was instructed:

I instruct you that a defendant is not required to have given, offered, or agreed to give a thing of value before the business, transaction, or series of transactions. Rather, the Government may prove that defendant Bravo gave, offered, or agreed to give the thing of value before, after, or at the same time as the business, transaction, or series of transactions. Therefore, the government does not need to prove that defendant Bravo gave, offered, or agreed to offer the trip to Las Vegas before defendant Martínez performed any official action or series of acts.

Of course, if you give someone cash after they perform a service, instead of before, that's a tip, rather than a bribe.

Another part of the instruction makes it a little clearer:

the Government does not need to prove that defendant Martinez solicited, demanded, accepted or agreed to accept the trip to Las Vegas before defendant Martinez performed any official act or series of acts.

Again, this looks a whole lot like the government can get a conviction if there's just some relationship between the money and the official act, rather than that the money caused the official act - which you'd need for bribery.

The government's closing argument didn't walk back from this. The government said:

These instructions clarify that -- that it doesn't matter if the trip was offered before official acts were taken, at the same time official acts were taken, or after official acts were taken, because the crime is offering or accepting the trip with intent to influence or reward.

These instructions, on these facts, allowed the First Circuit to conclude that the jury was instructed that Mr. Martinez or Mr. Bravo could be convicted if they merely received a gratuity, rather than a bribe.

Does section 666 criminalize gratuities?

The First Circuit said yes.

The statute criminalizes anyone who gives something to a state legislator (and others) with an intent to "influence or reward" that person. A number of circuits have held that the "or reward" bit of this includes gratuities. United States v. Anderson, 517 F.3d 953 (7th Cir. 2008); United States v. Ganim, 510 F.3d 134, 150 (2d Cir. 2007); United States v. Zimmerman, 509 F.3d 920, 927 (8th Cir. 2007).

The other way to read this is that the "or reward" applies to situations where the agreement was made before the official action, but the payment came later. If that's the case - and the deal was hatched, and "reward" just means paying off the previously agreed on sum in exchange for the official act - then this applies to bribes. It doesn't additionally criminalize bribery.

So, if you go into a restaurant and tell the waiter "I'll give you a $20 tip if you never let my iced tea glass get empty" then, because there's a qui pro quo, you've converted the tip from a gratuity to a bribe (except that it's completely legal to refill an iced tea glass frequently).

The First Circuit thought this was a plausible reading - and also noted that if you don't read it this way, it gets odd.

There are different punishments for bribes and gratuities if you're bribing a federal official. If it's a bribe of a federal official, the statutory maximum is 15 years. If it's just a gratuity, then the max is two years.

But for section 666 applying to state officials, any violation has a statutory maximum of 10 years.

The First Circuit thought it would be pretty odd to have such a high statutory maximum if Congress intended section 666 to apply to gratuities, that are normally capped at 2 years for federal officials.

For these reasons, and others, the convictions were vacated.

August 12, 2013

Short Wins - Attorney General Holder Wants Fewer People In Prison And We Add Attorney Names

It's been a busy week in the circuits. But first, two news items.

Eric Holder Walks Back The War On Drugs

Today, as has been widely reported, Eric Holder will announce that "widespread incarceration at the federal, state and local levels is both ineffective and unsustainable." Here's coverage at the Wall Street Journal.

This is good news, though, of course, it could have been better news. We have the highest incarceration rate in the world. We're spending way too much money to destroy families and communities for no good law enforcement reason. I can't help but wonder how many pointless years of prison time were imposed while Holder lead the Department of Justice before he made these changes.

It looks like Holder's proposals are (1) aimed at trimming a little bit of the horribleness of the war on drugs and (2) making it easier for folks to get released from prison early in some limited circumstances.

The devil, as always, will be in the details. We'll see. And, of course, this does nothing for the other areas of the law -- like fraud and child pornography possession -- where the sentences are also unconscionably high.

Attorney Names

In other news, we're adding a new part of Short Wins today. In the past, we've just published a short description of the case, and longer write-ups have come out during the week.

Today, in response to emails from some readers, we'll start to add the name of the lawyer who argued the case.

This has two goals. First, it will congratulate our fellow members of the bar who should be congratulated. Second, my friends in federal public defender offices have asked what percentage of wins are from the FPD community. I don't keep track, but this will make that a little easier to see.

Sadly, some circuits don't list the attorney who argued a case in the opinion. For the lawyers who won cases in those circuits, I'm sorry to say we won't be digging through Pacer to find your names.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. United States v. Fries, Eleventh Circuit: Appellant was convicted of transferring a firearm to an out-of-state residence when neither he nor the buyer was a licensed firearms dealer. Because the evidence at trial did not prove that appellant sold a weapon to a person who wasn't a licensed firearms dealer - an essential element of the offense - appellant's conviction was reversed with instructions for the trial court to enter a judgment of acquittal.

2. United States v. Hughes, Fifth Circuit: Appellant was charged with one count of conspiring to distribute crack and four counts of using a phone to facilitate the commission of a drug crime. At his plea hearing, the government informed the court that, in exchange for appellant's guilty plea to the drug conspiracy count, the government would move to dismiss the remaining charges at sentencing. Appellant pled guilty to all five counts. Although the government reminded the district court of the agreement to drop four of the five counts, the court sentenced appellant on all five counts. The court abused its discretion in sentencing appellant on all five counts because it provided no reasoning justifying its refusal to dismiss the four counts, and because the government did not argue that dismissing the counts would have been "clearly contrary to manifest public interest."

3. United States v. Lee, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to conspiring to distribute methamphetamine and a forfeiture count. For three years after her guilty plea, appellant substantially assisted the government's investigation and prosecution of a drug network in which she had been involved. She was then sentenced to 96 months in prison. Her sentence was vacated and remanded for resentencing because of three errors: the district court (1) failed to use the Guidelines as a starting point; (2) incorrectly calculated the Guidelines range; and (3) failed to determine a revised minimum sentence under 18 U.S.C. § 3553(e), as it was required to in considering appellant's substantial assistance.

Mark Eibert, Half Moon Bay, California, for Defendant-Appellant.

4. United States v. Nelson, Sixth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of being a felon in possession of a firearm and ammunition. At trial, the court admitted testimony from police regarding an anonymous 911 caller's description of appellant, which was hearsay evidence admitted to prove that appellant possessed a gun. The evidence shouldn't have been admitted because it went directly to the key issue for jury resolution, wasn't necessary for the government to provide the jury with a coherent narrative, and was too prejudicial for the harm to be cured without a limiting instruction. The error wasn't harmless because it was more probable than not that it had a material impact on the verdict. For these reasons, the judgment was vacated and the case remanded for a new trial.

Erik R. Herbert, Nashville, Tennessee, for Appellant.

5. United States v. Thomas, Ninth Circuit: Marijuana was found in a toolbox in appellant's car as a result of a search conducted by a drug dog and the dog's handler. Appellant was subsequently indicted for possessing marijuana with intent to distribute and, more than a year later, with conspiring to possess with intent to distribute marijuana. Appellant filed a motion to suppress the marijuana, which was denied. This was error, which was not harmless, as the government failed to disclose adequate evidence of the drug dog's and his handler's proficiency and experience to justify the search that led to the drugs.

Brian I. Rademacher, Assistant Federal Public Defender, District of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, argued the cause and filed the briefs for the appellant.

August 8, 2013

A Brady Violation in Tennessee

Placido Mendoza drove a truck from North Carolina to Tennessee. His passenger was Abel Tavera.

Tavera was a roofer. He later said (to a jury) that he thought he was going to Tennessee to see a construction project.

23.jpgThe truck had construction equipment in it. And a bucket containing nails.

Under the nails was a large quantity of methamphetamine.

Mr. Tavera went to trial and was convicted. His defense was that he didn't know that the truck had meth in it.

The driver, Mr. Mendoza, pled guilty before Mr. Tavera's trial.

Mr. Tavera was convicted and sentenced to 15 years and six months in prison.

After Mr. Tavera's trial, he learned that Mr. Mendoza told the AUSA - Donald Taylor - that Mr. Tavera had no knowledge of the drug conspiracy he was charged with.

AUSA Taylor never told Mr. Tavera's lawyer that Mr. Mendoza said Mr. Tavera isn't guilty.

And, as a result, the jury never heard that the only other guy in the car told the prosecutor that Mr. Tavera didn't know about the drugs.

As the Sixth Circuit said, "Mendoza's statements to Taylor were plainly exculpatory."

The Supreme Court has said that the government has to hand over all information that is exculpatory and that if it fails to do that, the prosecution is fundamentally unfair.

Yet, despite that the law is crystal clear on this, the Sixth Circuit notes that "nondisclosure of Brady material is still a perennial problem, as multiple scholarly accounts attest."

The procedural history is interesting - Mr. Tavera's motion for a new trial based on the Brady failure was still pending when the Sixth Circuit decided, in United States v. Tavera, that the Brady violation was so clear that the case had to go to a new trial.

The government did not think that it had to disclose this information. As the Sixth Circuit frames their argument:

the government argues, and the dissent agrees, that Tavera (although confined to his prison cell) or his lawyer should have exercised "due diligence" and discovered the statements by asking Mendoza if he had talked to the prosecutor.

The court of appeals held that the Supreme Court rejected the "due diligence" exception to Brady in Banks v. Dretke, 540 U.S. 668 (2004) when it noted that "[a] rule thus declaring "prosecutor may hide, defendant must seek," is not tenable in a system constitutionally bound to accord defendants due process."

Moreover, a rule that a Brady violation is excusable if the defendant or defense lawyer just does more work is kind of stupid. As the Sixth Circuit explained:

The Supreme Court's rejection of the idea that the "prisoner still has the burden to discover the evidence" is based in part on the fact that the prosecution has the advantage of a large staff of investigators, prosecutors and grand jurors, as well as new technology such as wiretaps of cell phones. That is one of the reasons that these investigators must assist the defendant who normally lacks this assistance and may wrongfully lose his liberty for years if the information they uncover remains undisclosed. The superior prosecutorial investigatory apparatus must turn over exculpatory information.

My favorite part is the suggestion that Mr. Tavera's lawyer should have interviewed Mr. Mendoza - because there is just about exactly zero chance that any competent lawyer would let his client talk to a co-defendant about the facts of the case while he's trying to work out a deal with the government.

Because "[t]his case shows once again how prosecutors substitute their own judgment of the defendant's guilt for that of the jury" the court of appeals reversed and recommended that "the U.S. Attorney's office for the Eastern District of Tennessee conduct an investigation of why this prosecutorial error occurred and make sure that such Brady violations do not continue."

August 7, 2013

Marriage Fraud Does Not Wait On Lying To Immigration Officials

Does marriage fraud happen in the marriage, or at the wedding? As it happens, marriage fraud, at least according to the Eleventh Circuit, is a bit of a misnomer - it's really better thought of as wedding fraud.

The statute is 8 U.S.C. § 1325(c). It says that it's a marriage fraud whenever "[a]ny individual who knowingly enters into a marriage for the purpose of evading any provision of the immigration laws." The case is United States v. Rojas.

2.jpgYunier Rojas and Soledad Marino were friends. Good friends, but just friends. Apparently not even friends with benefits. Just friends.

Ms. Marino is an Argentinian who had overstayed her nonimmigrant visa. Mr. Rojas, as a friend, married her so that she could stay in the country.

The happy day was April 23, 2007.

Two years later, Ms. Marino sent in an application to adjust her status, as a result of her marriage. She sent in a marriage license from April 2007, as well as a list of addresses where she had lived with Mr. Rojas as a married couple.

Folks from Immigration and Customs Enforcement - ICE - interviewed the couple, together.

The interview didn't go well. As a result of discrepancies between what they said, the interviewers decided to interview the couple separately. The two gave different answers about their marriage. One suspects that they were more substantive than whether her favorite flavor of ice cream was really pistachio.

Finally, the ICE agents told the couple that they thought the marriage was a fraud. Both Mr. Rojas and Ms. Marino admitted that it was.

Mr. Rojas signed a statement saying that he and Ms. Marino were just friends - and that he married her so she could stay in the country.

As often happens when folks volunteer information about their own criminal conduct, law enforcement responded charitably - the government indicted Mr. Rojas.

The indictment came on April 27, 2012.

This was, of course, five years and four days after April 23, 2007 - the day the couple were married.

Mr. Rojas filed a motion to dismiss the indictment, which was denied.

On appeal, the Eleventh Circuit, per curiam, in an opinion that didn't require argument, held that the crime of marriage fraud is completed on the day that the couple enters into the marriage.

This is because the criminal conduct is "knowingly enter[ing] into a marriage" that's a sham to defeat immigration laws.

The government argued that the crime of immigration fraud was not complete until the couple lied to the government about the purpose of the marriage. That, after all, is when the government first learned that a crime had happened.

Since the purpose of entering in a sham marriage - according to the government - is to lie to immigration, the couple has to actually finish lying to immigration for the crime to be done.

The Eleventh Circuit rejected this argument.

To prove marriage fraud, the government must show that (1) the defendant knowingly entered into a marriage (2) for the purpose of evading any provision of the immigration laws.2 See 8 U.S.C. § 1325(c). It is undisputed that Rojas and Marino married on April 23, 2007. It is likewise undisputed that Rojas, at the time he entered into the marriage, did so for the purpose of violating the immigration laws--namely, using the marriage to adjust Marino's immigration status. Filing for immigration benefits may serve as circumstantial evidence of the defendant's unlawful purpose and may lead, as it did in this case, to charges and prosecution for making a false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement to DHS, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1001(a)(2). The plain language of the marriage fraud statute, however, cannot plausibly be read to require that a defendant take the additional step of filing for immigration benefits in order for the crime to be complete.

The district court abused its discretion by holding otherwise.

So, Mr. Rojas is free to go. Though I suspect that the statute of limitations on lying to the ICE investigators may not have run yet.

August 2, 2013

Short Wins - The Last Week of Blog Nominating and a Bright Spot on Danbury

Two bits of news before we get to the short wins:

ABA Blog Nominations

First, this is the last week you can tell the ABA Law Journal what you think about this blog - or any other law-related blog - as they prepare their list of the top 100 law-related blogs in the country (or world, or multiverse).

The link is here and you've got to get your stuff in my the end of this week - August 9.

If you like this blog, I'd be grateful if you'd share it with them. If you dislike this blog, please feel free to email me and let me know what you'd like to see done differently.

FCI-Danbury

Second, as you may recall from last week, the Bureau of Prisons is thinking about closing the only federal women's facility in the Northeast.

This is a huge problem because the farther women are incarcerated from their children, the lower the likelihood that they will actually get to see their children while they are incarcerated. And, hopefully, as a society, we can agree that it's generally a good thing for kids to see their moms.

There's a bit of a bright spot - a number of senators have written the Bureau of Prisons to ask them to try to stop the move. As reported in the Hartford Courant and described in Todd Busert's blog, these 11 senators are trying to make the case that the Northeast needs a federal prison for women.

Here's to hoping that works.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. United States v. Esquivel-Rios, Tenth Circuit: Appellant's car, which bore an out-of-state 30 day registration tag, was stopped after a police officer could not verify the tag with a law enforcement database. During the call to verify the tag, the dispatcher told the officer that these types of tags often don't show up in the database. At trial, the officer confirmed that he too had never seen this type of tag come up. Drugs were found in appellant's car. His motions to suppress the drugs were denied. Because the court did not consider the totality of the circumstances in determining whether the stop violated the Fourth Amendment - including the dispatcher's comment and the officer's own experience with these tags - the case was remanded for the district court to consider this evidence and to determine whether the officer had reasonable suspicion to stop appellant.

2. United States v. Flores, Ninth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of multiple drug conspiracy offenses and a firearm charge and sentenced to 240 months in prison. The district court applied a two-level enhancement under sentencing guideline § 3B1.4 for the use of a person less than 18 in the conspiracy. Because this enhancement was imposed without a factual basis, appellant's sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

3. United States v. Lira, Ninth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of drug trafficking and using a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking offense. He was sentenced to 120 months on the firearm charge. At the time, the law provided that the mandatory minimum for the firearm charge increased from five to ten years if the firearm was discharged, which the district court found was the case by a preponderance of the evidence. After sentencing, the law changed: the Supreme Court ruled that facts that increase mandatory minimum sentences must be submitted to the jury and established beyond a reasonable doubt. Because appellant's 120-month sentence was based on a fact found by the court by a preponderance of the evidence, resentencing was required.

July 30, 2013

Short Wins - The BOP Makes Prison Harder For Women, and Blog Lobbying

It's a bit of a sleepy week in the circuits, but not too sleepy in the news.

BOP Coverts Danbury to a Men's Prison

In Slate, Yale law professor Judith Resnik wrote about the problems facing female inmates in the Bureau of Prisons (hat tip to Todd Bussert's BOP Blog).

The BOP is converting Danbury to an all-male facility (Danbury is, of course, where Piper Kerman of "Orange is the New Black" fame did her time). This despite years of lobbying to open up more prisons for women closer to where their families are in the Northeast. It'll be harder for lawyers to see their clients, clients to get seen by their lawyers, and women to have visits from their children.

This is not good.

Also, if you're worried about the plight of women in BOP custody, here's a great nonprofit to get involved with.

ABA Blog Voting Time

Unrelatedly, it's now time for folks who are fans of this blog to let the ABA Journal know. I'd be grateful for any props. Here's the link.

Short Wins

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1. United States v. Flores-Cordero, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to illegal reentry and, at sentencing, a 16-level increase was added to his base offense level based on his prior state conviction for resisting arrest. Because appellant's prior conviction did not constitute a "crime of violence" under U.S.S.G. § 2L1.2, the sentence was vacated and the case remanded for resentencing.

2. United States v. Hogg, Sixth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to possession with intent to distribute crack and was sentenced to 188 months in prison after two motions to withdraw his plea were denied. Before he was sentenced, the Fair Sentencing Act was passed, enacting more lenient penalties for crack offenses. At his sentencing, the law provided that courts should look to the penalty provisions in effect when the person committed the offense - not to the lesser penalties in the Act. The Supreme Court changed that after appellant was sentenced, ruling that people sentenced after the Act's enactment are entitled to the more lenient penalties. Because the district court and counsel did not correctly anticipate the potential impact of the Act on appellant's sentence (because they were not clairvoyant), appellant was given incorrect advice at his plea hearing. As a result, he should have been permitted to with draw his plea. The case was reversed and remanded.

3. United States v. Juncal, Second Circuit: Appellants were convicted of conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud arising out of a scheme to obtain a $3 billion loan to finance the construction of a pipeline across Siberia. Appellants were sentenced to twenty years in prison. Because of procedural errors in appellants' sentencing, including the court's failure to weigh the 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a) factors, the cases were remanded for resentencing.

July 22, 2013

Short Wins

It's been a busy week in the federal circuits - lots of good wins to check out.

Also, while I'm shamelessly pimping, please check out an article I wrote for the National Law Journal here about DOJ prosecutions, pleas, and why the law ought to be clearer.

To the victories!

1155650_berlin_siegessule.jpg1.United States v. Adams, et. al, Sixth Circuit: Appellants were convicted office RICO and related offenses arising out of their alleged participation in a vote-buying scheme in Kentucky. Because of cumulative error from the district court's evidentiary rulings, including the admission of an Inside Edition video, evidence of witness intimidation, the use of an inaccurate transcript, and state election records, among other evidence, appellants' convictions on all counts were vacated and the case remanded for a new trial.

2. United States v. Botello-Rosales, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to drug and firearm charges after his motion to suppress statements he made to police after his arrest was denied. Because the Spanish-language warning administered to appellant failed to reasonably convey to appellant his Miranda rights, the district court erred in denying the motion to suppress. As a result, the district court's order denying the motion was reversed, appellant's conviction vacated, and the case remanded for further proceedings.

3. United States v. Daniels, et. al, Fifth Circuit: Appellants were convicted of conspiring to distribute more than five kilograms of cocaine. Because there was insufficient evidence to support the finding as to the quantity of drugs, the court reversed as to that finding only, vacating appellants' sentences and remanding for the district court to resentence appellants for the drug conspiracy pursuant to a statutory provision associated with a lesser quantity of drugs.

4. United States v. Garcia, Ninth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of involuntary manslaughter. The involuntary manslaughter jury instruction was defective because it failed to tell the jury that "gross negligence" was required for a conviction. Because the jury wasn't properly instructed, appellant's conviction was reversed.

5. United States v. Lanning, Fourth Circuit: Appellant was convicted of disorderly conduct arising out of his brief touching of an officer's fully-clothed crotch, which was done in response to a police officer in a sting operation's deliberate attempt to convince appellant he would have sex with him. Because no rational trier of fact could have found beyond a reasonable doubt that appellant's actions were "physically threatening or menacing" or "likely to inflict injury or incite an immediate breach of the peace," and because the term "obscene" was unconstitutionally vague as applied to appellant, appellant's conviction was reversed and the case remanded for a judgment of acquittal.

6. United States v. Perez-Valencia, Ninth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to conspiring to distribute methamphetamine after the court denied his motion to suppress evidence obtained by a wiretap. The wiretap application was filed by an assistant district attorney. Because the record was insufficient to determine the precise nature of the attorney's authority when he applied for the wiretap, the case was remanded to develop the factual record. Further, on remand, if the court determines that the attorney lacked the authority to apply for the wiretap, it was instructed to consider whether the evidence subject to the motion to suppress is so attenuated from the statutory violation that it need not be excluded.