Remember back with this blog was more than just Short Wins? Remember when there were long and loving descriptions of cases?
I still aspire to get back to that vision for the blog – that was fun. Seriously, look for more long write-ups soon. I’ve been distracted by writing for Above the Law (here is a link to my columns (I particularly like the one about cannibalism)) and my day job as a practicing lawyer.
But, if you’re jonesing for those long write-ups again, thanks to the good people at James Publishing, you can now read them in one handy-dandy book. It has the jazzy title Criminal Defense Victories in the Federal Circuits. Or you could just read the archives.
In other self-promoting news, the ABA’s annual list of best blogs is open for nominations. Here’s the link. It would be nice if you’d say something nice about this blog, but don’t feel like you have to.
To the Victories!
1. United States v. Flores-Mejia, Third Circuit: The court vacated Appellant’s sentence after being convicted of reentry after deportation. The Third Circuit, however, used the opportunity to change its current law and now requires a party to object to procedural errors during the sentencing proceeding once that error is evident, otherwise it is not preserved. Because the new rule cannot apply retroactively, Appellant’s case was remanded.
Defense Attorney: Robert Epstein
2. Hurst v. Joyner, Fourth Circuit: The district court improperly denied a petition for habeas corpus. The Fourth Circuit remanded for an evidentiary hearing where a juror communicated with her father during the penalty phase of Appellant’s capital murder trial. At her father’s suggestion, the juror read a section in the Bible about “an eye for an eye,” and then voted in favor of the death penalty the following day. An evidentiary hearing was necessary to determine whether that communication had a substantial and injurious effect or influence on the jury’s verdict.
Defense Attorney: Robert Hood Hale
3. United States v. Garrett, Sixth Circuit: Appellant was sentenced to 151 months’ imprisonment after pleading guilty to one count of conspiracy to distribute more than 50 grams of crack cocaine. Although that sentence was at the bottom of Appellant’s guidelines, the Sixth Circuit determined that Appellant was eligible for resentencing because his sentence was based on a sentencing range that has subsequently been lowered by the Sentencing Commission. Appellant’s initial Guidelines range was 151 to 188 months, but after the Guidelines Amendment, it would be 120 to 137 months.
Defense Attorneys: Bradley R. Hall and James Gerometta
4. Townsend v. Cooper, Seventh Circuit: Appellant sued a number of officials at his correctional facility and the district court granted summary judgment in favor of the Appellees. The court determined, taken in the light most favorable to Appellant, that Appellant raised genuine issues of material fact about whether he had a liberty interest in avoiding transfer to more restrictive prison conditions, which would require procedural due process. Because there was not appropriate notice or an opportunity to be heard, the district court’s grant of summary judgment was vacated and remanded.
5. United States v. Harden, Seventh Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to possession with intent to distribute cocaine and Appellant agreed to allow a magistrate judge perform he plea colloquy. Taking and accepting guilty pleas in felony cases is not one of the enumerated duties of magistrate judges and was determined by the Seventh Circuit to be both important and dispositive. Therefore, magistrate judges are not authorized to accept guilty pleas in felony cases, even if both parties would consent.
6. United States v. Sheth, Seventh Circuit: After pleading guilty to health care fraud, the district court entered an order of criminal forfeiture for cash and investment accounts then valued at about $13 million plus real estate and a vehicle. The forfeited assets would be credited against his $12,376,310 restitution. The government then sought further assets to apply to restitution and the district court ordered Appellant to turn over those assets. The turnover order was vacated and remanded for discovery and an evidentiary hearing to determine whether the first set of forfeited assets was sufficient to cover the restitution order.
7. United States v. Doering, Eighth Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to tampering with evidence and was sentenced to 90 months’ imprisonment and ordered to pay $45,382.88 in restitution. The restitution order was vacated and remanded because Appellant’s plea agreement did not list, as required, that an offense listed in the Mandatory Victims Restitution Act gave rise to the plea agreement. Without that specific, mandatory term, restitution under the MVRA was unauthorized.
8. United States v. Howard, Eighth Circuit: The order of restitution against Appellant was vacated because the calculation improperly included losses from dates preceding the relevant conduct of Appellant’s extortion conviction. The losses arose outsides of the dates listed in the indictment.
9. United States v. Nguyen, Eighth Circuit: Appellant’s conviction for knowingly shipping, transporting, receiving, possessing, selling, and distributing contraband cigarettes was reversed because there was insufficient evidence. Specifically, the government had no evidence that Appellant was aware of any applicable sales taxes on the cigarettes; the government had no evidence as to Appellant’s knowing violation of the statute.
10. United States v. Thomas, Eighth Circuit: Appellants was sentenced to 120 months’ imprisonment after pleading guilty to possession with intent to distribute 50 grams or more of methamphetamine. The case was remanded because the district court’s oral sentence was ambiguous about the sentencing guidelines range on which the Appellant’s sentence as based. On appeal, that ambiguity made it impossible to determine if the district court committed procedural error.
11. United States v. Gonzalez, Ninth Circuit: The Ninth Circuit remanded Petitioner’s case with instructions to grant the writ of habeas corpus based on the prosecution’s failure to disclose Brady material that would have impeached the credibility of a critical witness. The California Court of Appeal’s decision that Petitioner had not established that the evidence was newly discovered was an unreasonable determination of the facts. The court held that the California Court of Appeal’s requirement of due diligence was contrary to, or involved an unreasonable application of, clearly established federal law.
Defense Attorney: John Lanahan
12. Wood v. Ryan, Ninth Circuit: The district court improperly denied Appellant’s request for a preliminary injunction delaying his execution, which was scheduled for July 23, 2014. Appellant presented claimed that Department of Corrections violated his First Amendment rights by denying him information regarding the method of his execution. Because Appellant presented serious questions to the merits of the claim, and because the balance of hardships tips in his favor, the preliminary injunction should have been granted
13. United States v. Charles, Eleventh Circuit: Appellant pled guilty to charges relating to a conspiring to use unauthorized access devices. Appellant’s sentence was vacated because the district court committed legal error when it included a two-level sentence increase for trafficking in unauthorized access devices (for example, a prepaid debit card). Because Appellant was convicted of aggravated identity theft as well, the district court was precluded from considering any specific offense characteristic for the transfer, possession, or use of a means of identification when determining the sentence for the underlying offense.
14. United States v. Estrella, Eleventh Circuit: As part of his sentence for illegal reentry, Appellant’s received a sentencing enhancement for a crime of violence based on his prior conviction for wantonly or maliciously throwing, hurling, or projecting a missile, stone, or other hard substance at an occupied vehicle. Under the categorical approach, the Eleventh Circuit determined that a conviction for that crime does not necessarily involve proof of the use, attempt, or threat of force. Therefore, the crime of violence enhancement was improper.
15. Bahlul v. United States, D.C. Circuit: Hamdan II held that there cannot be retroactive prosecution for conduct committed before the Military Commissions Act of 2006 unless that conduct was already prohibited under existing U.S. law as a war crime triable by a military commission. But that understand was contrary to the statutory wording, which allowed for the prosecution of any crimes. The D.C. Circuit, applying an ex post facto analysis, determined that Appellant’s conviction for providing material support for terrorism and solicitation of others to commit war crimes were not previously offenses that were triable by a military commission, so the convictions were vacated.
Defense Attorneys: Michel Paradis, Mary R. McCormick, and Todd E. Pierce